The Croats lived north of the Carpathian Mountains before they moved to the South and settled in the present regions. This move took place during the siege of Constantinople by the Avaro-Persians in 626 and during the reign of Heraclius I the Byzantine emperor. He asked the Croats for help and invited them into Dalmatia. The Croats, after several years of bloody fighting, had defeated the Avars and pushed them to the north of the Danube. They then settled, as Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus writes, in Dalmatia, Pannonia and Illyricum which means: between the Adriatic Sea in the South and the Drava and Danube rivers in the North, and betwen the Rasa river in Istria in the West, the Drina river in the East and the Vojusa river in the Southeast which is present Albania.
The tradition of the Croatian Cyrillic Script goes back to the 12th century and lasted continuously until the 18th century, with sporadic uses even in the 20th century. Of course, there are incomparably more Croatian Glagolitic monuments than Cyrillic, not to speak about tremendous Croatian literature in the Latin Script since the 15th century. However, it is the fact that the Croatian Cyrillic represents an important cultural heritage. This Script was in use among the Croats in Dalmatia (especially in the Split and Makarska hinterland), in the Dubrovnik region and in Bosnia-Herzegovina. It is interesting that some of the Croatian Catholics, who visited the Vatican in the 17th and 18th century, left their signatures written in the Croatian Cyrillic, which they call expressly the Croatian script.
Thus, the Croatian Cyrillic includes the following three major regions:
* Bosnia and Herzegovina, (especially widespread among Bosnian Franciscans),
* the Poljica Principality (near Split) and Makarska hinterland, as well as islands of the middle Dalmatia (e.g. Brac),
* the region of Dubrovnik, including Konavle.
The name of `Bosancica' (or `bosanica') is of a relatively recent provenance - it has been created by a Croat Ciro Truhelka in 1889, at that time a very young, 24 years old scientist. Its rather misleading name suggests that it has been related exclusively to the territory of Bosnia, which is not true, since it was used in Herzegovina, Dalmatia and on some Croatian islands as well. It is interesting that Croatian Cyrillic, i.e. `Bosancica', can be seen in Croatian texts written in Istria, see below. The name of `western Cyrillic', which also appears in the literature, is even more imprecise (`western' with respect to what?). It seems to be appropriate to call this version of the Cyrillic script by the national name of those who used it most and who left the greatest number of written documents, as in the case of other national versions (Bulgarian Cyrillic, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Serbian, Ukrainian, Byelorussian, Russian). There are also important palaeographic reasons, see [Benedikta Zelic-Bucan]. Thus the notions of Croatian Cyrillic and "Bosancica" are equivalent.
The name of the Croatian Cyrillic (or Bosancica) had the following genesis:
One of undoubtedly Croatian linguistic characteristics in Bosnia is a very widespread use of the ikavian dialect (an amazing literature has been written in the ikavian version of the Croatian language, since the time of Marko Marulic in the 15th century, and also earlier by Glagolitic scribes). Even today many Croats in Istria, Dalmatia, Gorski Kotar, Slavonia, Baranja use it, as well as the Croats in Austria (Gradisce area), Hungary and Yugoslavia (Srijem, Backa). Many traces of its use can be heard also in Bosnia, both among the Croats and Muslims, despite intensive serbization of the language in the period of 1918-1991.
The reader may be surprised to know that there are even traces of runic script on the territory of BiH, like the one from the village of Breza in central Bosnia, dating from 5-6th centuries.
Bosnian Franciscans are a religious order in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was allowed by Sultan Mehmed II in the Ottoman empire in 1463.
The former Yugoslavia had 23,472,000 inhabitants in the moment of its breakdown in 1991. It consisted of six republics, defined by the Constitution as the states. In the structure of the Republic of Serbia there were two autonomous provinces, defined as the federal units by the Constitution with the same status as the republics. As the multi-ethnic state, it was made up of six nations: Montenegrins(600,000 - 2.6%), Croats( 4,650,000 - 19.6%), Macedonians(1,420,000 - 6%),Muslims(2,200,000 - 8.9%),Slovenes ( 1,820,000 - 7,8%),Serbs(8,460,000 - 36.3%). Although treated as an ethnic group, Albanians( 2,150,000 - 8%) were more numerous than three South-Slav nations: Montenegrins, Slovenes and Macedonians. Then followed Hungarians accounting for 426,000 or 2%. Huge differences in numerousness, the largest nation being 14 times greater than the least one, influenced the political life in the country decisevely.
Kulin made a contract with Dubrovnik in accordance with which merchants from Dubrovnik obtained complete freedom of trading within Bosnia and great influence over the Bosnian economy.
The Bosnian Church (Croatian: Crkva bosanska Latin: Ecclesia bosniensis) is historically thought to be an indigenous branch of the Bogomils that existed in Bosnia during the Middle Ages. Adherents of the church called themselves simply Krstjani ("Christians"). The church no longer exists and is thought to have disappeared completely after the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The church's organization and beliefs are poorly understood, because few if any records were left by church members, and the church is mostly known from the writings of outside sources, primarily Roman Catholic ones.
* 1 History
* 2 Characteristics
* 3 Bosnian Church scholarship
* 4 References
Bosnia was on the boundary between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. The Croats to the West and Hungarians to the North embraced Roman Catholicism, while the Serbian lands to the east and small southeastern parts of Herzegovina embraced Eastern Orthodoxy.
During the later Middle Ages most of Bosnia was partly Roman Catholic as well, but no accurate figures exist as to the numbers of adherents of the two churches. The Bosnian Church coexisted uneasily with Roman Catholicism for much of the later Middle Ages. Part of the resistance of the Bosnian Church was political; during the 14th century, the Roman Church placed Bosnia under a Hungarian bishop, and the schism may have been motivated by a desire for independence from Hungarian domination. Several Bosnian rulers were Krstjani, but some of them embraced Roman Catholicism for political reasons.
Outsiders accused the Bosnian Church of links to the Patarene heresy, and to the Bogomils, a Manichean sect centered in Bulgaria. The Inquisition reported about a dualist sect in Bosnia in the late 15th century and called them "Bosnian heretics", but this sect was according to some historians most likely not the same as the Bosnian Church. The historian Franjo Rački wrote about this in 1869 based on Latin sources.
It is thought today that the Patareni, who were persecuted by both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches, were entirely converted to Islam. Some historians now believe that the Bosnian Church had largely disappeared before the Turkish conquest in 1463.
The religious centre of the Bosnian Church was placed in Moštre, near Visoko, where the house of krstjani was founded.
The Church had its own bishop and used the Slavic language in liturgy. The bishop was called djed (lit. "grandfather"), and had a council of twelve men called strojnici. The monasteries were called hiža (lit. "house"), and the heads of monasteries were often called gost (lit. "guest") and served as strojnici.
The Church was mainly composed of monks in scattered monastic houses. It had no territorial organization and it did not deal with any secular matters other than attending people's burials. It did not involve itself in state issues very much. Notable exceptions were when King Stephen Ostoja of Bosnia, a member of the Bosnian Church himself, had a djed as an advisor at the royal court between 1403 and 1405, and an occasional occurrence of a krstjan elder being a mediator or diplomat.
The monumental tombstones called stećci (plural) / stećak (singular) that appeared in medieval Bosnia and Herzegovina are identified with the Bosnian Church.
The phenomenon of Bosnian medieval Christians has been attracting scholars' attention for centuries, but it was not until the latter half of the 19th century that the most important monograph on the subject, "Bogomili i Patareni" (Bogomils and Patarens), 1870, by eminent Croatian historian Franjo Rački, had been published. Rački argued that the Bosnian Church was essentially Gnostic and Manichaean in nature. This interpretation has been accepted, expanded and elaborated upon by a host of later historians, most prominent among them being Dominik Mandić, Sima Ćirković, Vladimir Ćorović, Miroslav Brandt and Franjo Šanjek. However, a number of other historians (Leon Petrović, Jaroslav Šidak, Dragoljub Dragojlović, Dubravko Lovrenović, and Noel Malcolm) stressed theologically the impeccably orthodox character of Bosnian Christian writings and claimed that for the explanation of this phenomenon suffices the relative isolation of Bosnian Christianity, which retained many archaic traits predating the East-West Schism in 1054.
John Fine, Professor of History at the University of Michigan, revolutionized the scholarship around the Bosnian Church with his pivotal work,The Bosnian Church. In that work, he argues that the Bosnian Church was not related to the Bogomils or other dualist groups. Instead, he asserts that the church was actually founded by Franciscan Monks from the Catholic Church.
1. ^ Old town Visoki declared as national monument. 2004.
2. ^ Fine, John. The Bosnian Church: Its Place in State and Society from the Thirteenth to the Fifteenth Century: A New Interpretation. London: SAQI, The Bosnian Institute, 2007. ISBN 0863565034
Although the principal objectives of the April, 1993, Muslim offensive-the SPS explosives factory, OZCB headquarters, and the vital Travnik-Kaonik road-were in the Vitez area, the attack extended, as HVO intelligence officer Ivica Zeko predicted, to the Busovaca, Kiseljak, and Zenica areas. Elsewhere-in Travnik, Novi Travnik, Zepce, and Vares-the ABiH elected to avoid an all-out attack in order to concentrate their forces in the critical Vitez-Busovaca-Kiseljak-Zenica area. The HVO mounted a strong active defense and repelled the Muslim attack in Busovaca and Kiseljak. But Muslim attackers in the Zenica area succeeded in destroying the HVO forces and expelling the Croat population from the town and many of the surrounding villages.
An important and interesting phenomenon of Bosnian history are Krstyans, members of the mysterious Bosnian Church - a Christian religious sect. Krstyans are also known under the name of Good Christians (Dobri Krstyani).
|Most Franciscans are members of Roman Catholic religious orders founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. Besides Roman Catholic communities, there are also Old Catholic, Anglican, ecumenical, and Liberal Catholic Franciscan communities.
The most prominent group is the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called simply the "Franciscans." They seek to follow most directly the manner of life that Saint Francis led. This Order is a mendicant religious order of men tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi. It comprises three separate groups, each considered a religious order in its own right. These are the Observants, most commonly simply called "Franciscan friars," the Capuchins, and the Conventual Franciscans. They all live according to a body of regulations known as "The Rule of St. Francis".
|Order of Friars Minor
Abbreviation ofm, Franciscan
Motto Pax et Bonum
Type Catholic religious order
Headquarters Via S. Maria Mediatrice 25,
Minister General Marco Tasca
Key people Francis of Assisi — founder
* 1 Name
* 2 Beginning of the brotherhood
* 3 Last years of Francis
* 4 Development of the order after the death of Francis
o 4.1 Dissensions during the life of Francis
o 4.2 Development to 1239
o 4.3 1239 - 1274
o 4.4 1274 - 1300
o 4.5 Persecution
o 4.6 Renewed controversy on the question of poverty
o 4.7 Separate congregations
+ 4.7.1 Clareni
+ 4.7.2 Minorites of Narbonne
+ 4.7.3 Reform of Johannes de Vallibus
o 4.8 Unification
* 5 Modern times
o 5.1 Distinguished Franciscans
* 6 Third Order
o 6.1 Secular Franciscan Order
o 6.2 Third Order Regular
o 6.3 Brothers and Sisters of Penance of Saint Francis
* 7 Franciscans International
* 8 Ecumenical and Non-Roman Catholic Franciscans
* 9 Visions and Stigmata
* 10 Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land
* 11 Contributions
* 12 Notes
* 13 References
o 13.1 Books
o 13.2 Articles